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Nonwheat Flours

 

atta  See chapati flour.

 

bajri flour = kurakkan   Notes:   Poor farmers in India and Pakistan use this millet flour to make bread and griddle cakes.  It's gluten-free.  Look for it in India markets.  Substitutes:  sorghum flour

 

barley flour  Substitutes:  other nonwheat flour  Notes:  To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under all-purpose flour.

besan (flour)  See chickpea flour

blue atole flour  Notes:  This is blue cornmeal that's been roasted.  It's cooked and served for breakfast much like oatmeal.

blue corn flour  See harinilla.

 

blue cornmeal  See cornmeal.

brown rice flour  See rice flour.

 

buckwheat flour    Notes:   This is a low-gluten gray flour that's great in pancakes and pastas.  To make your own:   Pulverize whole white buckwheat groats in a food processor or blender until they have the consistency of flour.   Substitutes:   all-purpose flour OR other nonwheat flour  Notes:  To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under all-purpose flour.

casava flour = farinha de mandioca = casabe = manioc flour   Brazilians use this as a thickener for stews.  Look for it in Hispanic markets.  Substitutes:  gari (This is a Nigerian flour that's also made from cassavas.) OR toasted bread crumbs OR all-purpose flour 

chana flour  See chickpea flour. 

chapati flour = chapatti flour = chappati flour = atta   Notes:   This is a blend of wheat and malted barley flours used to make chapatis.  Look for it in Indian markets.  Substitutes:   Sift together equal parts whole wheat flour and all-purpose flour.

chapatti flour  See chapati flour

chappati flour  See chapati flour

 

chickpea flour = besan (flour) = gram flour = cici flour = chana flour = garbanzo bean flour   Shopping hints:   Look for this in Indian markets or health food stores.  To make your own:  Lightly roast dried garbanzo beans, then grind them in a blender until mixture has the consistency of flour. Substitutes:  lightly roast dried yellow split peas, then grind them in a blender until mixture has the consistency of flour OR all-purpose flour (different flavor and consistency)

cici flour  See chickpea flour

 

corn flour  To make your own:  Mix cornmeal in a blender until it has the consistency of flour. Substitutes: cornmeal (more coarsely ground; consider cooking with liquids in recipe first to soften) OR other nonwheat flour  Notes:  To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under all-purpose flour.

cornmeal  = mealie meal  Equivalents:   One pound = 3 1/4 cups  Notes:   Cornmeal comes in different colors:  white, yellow, and blue.  Yellow cornmeal has more beta carotene than the others, while blue cornmeal has more protein and turns baked goods purple.  Larger supermarkets also carry stone-ground cornmeal = water-ground cornmeal, which is more tasty and nutritious than regular cornmeal, but doesn't keep as long.  See also self-rising cornmeal.   Substitutes:  polenta OR corn flour (gives baked goods a lighter texture) OR (if using cornmeal for breading) crush corn chips in a blender until they have the consistency of cornmeal.

cream of rice

dal flour = legume flour   Notes:   This is flour ground from Indian legumes.  Varieties include besan flour (made from channa dal), urad dal flour, and mung dal flour.

dhokra flour = dhokla flour = dokra flour = dokla flour   Notes:  This Indian flour is made from a blend of rice, urad dal, and chickpeas.  It's used to make cakes that look like squares of cornbread, which Indians steam and garnish with grated coconut, tamarind sauces, and other seasonings.

farinha mandioca  See manioc flour.

garbanzo bean flour  See chickpea flour

 

gari = garri   Notes:   This Nigerian flour is made from cassavas that have been fermented, roasted, and ground.  Look for it in African markets.  Substitutes:  cream of wheat (Works well in fufu, but doesn't impart the sour flavor that gari does.) OR cassava flour (This is the Brazilian version of gari.)

gluten-free flours  Notes:    Gluten is what makes wheat-based bread dough so sticky and elastic.  This helps the dough hold in the air bubbles created by the yeast so that it will rise and eventually bake into a fluffy, porous loaf.  If you're gluten-intolerant, though, you'll need to use gluten-free flour, along with an arsenal of ingredients to make it behave like it has gluten. 

gram flour  See chickpea flour

harinilla = blue corn flour  Substitutes:  masa harina (yellow, not blue) OR mix blue cornmeal in a blender until it has the consistency of flour (note that true harinilla is treated with lime)

kamut flour   Notes:  Kamut flour is tolerated by many people with wheat allergies and is a good substitute for wheat when making bread and pasta, especially if it's combined with other flours (e.g., spelt flour).   Substitutes:  spelt flour (Spelt flour is also tolerated by many people with wheat allergies.) OR all-purpose flour

 

masa harina  Notes:   This is flour made from hominy, and it's used to make corn tortillas and tamales.  Look for it in large supermarkets or Hispanic markets.  It's made with either yellow or white corn; harinilla is made with blue corn.  Substitutes: masa (This is masa harina that's been reconstituted with water.) OR harinilla (blue, not yellow)

mealie meal  See cornmeal.

 

millet flour  Substitutes:  rice flour OR other nonwheat flour  To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under  all-purpose flour

mung dal flour   Notes:  Indian cooks use this to make breads and dumplings. 

 

oat bran  Substitutes:  wheat bran (drier, less appealing flavor than oat bran)

 

oat flour  To make your own:  Blend oatmeal in blender until it has the consistency of flour (Use 1 1/4 cups rolled oats to make one cup oat flour.  For more details, visit the Illinois Cooperative Extension Service's Oat Flour, Grinding Your Own page.)  Substitutes:  whole wheat flour OR other nonwheat flour  To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under  all-purpose flour

plantain flour = fufu flour  Notes:  Nigerians make fufu out of this.  Substitutes:  gari

polenta meal  Substitutes: yellow cornmeal (coarsely ground) OR ready-made polenta (saves time) OR hominy grits OR millet

 

pumpernickel flour = dark rye meal flour   Notes:  This flour is made from the whole rye grain, including the bran.

pumpkin seed flour = alguashte = harina de semilla de calabaza

 

quinoa flour  To make your own:  1 C = C whole quinoa, ground in a blender until it has the texture of fine cornmeal

rice bran  Notes:  This is very rich in fiber.  Substitutes:  wheat bran

rice flour  (includes white rice flour and nuttier brown rice flour) Substitutes:  cake flour (especially if the rice flour is intended to soften the texture of a baked good) OR barley flour (also delivers a softer texture to baked goods) OR pastry flour (also delivers a softer texture to baked goods) OR (for those allergic to wheat) spelt flour (makes baked goods heavier) OR potato flour OR millet flour  Notes:   To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours, see the listing under  all-purpose flour

 

rye flour  (includes medium rye flour and heartier dark rye flour) Substitutes: triticale flour OR other nonwheat flour  To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under all-purpose flour

self-rising cornmeal  To make your own:  Combine one cup cornmeal, one cup flour, one tablespoon baking powder, one teaspoon salt, and 1/4 cup butter or other fat.

 

sorghum flour = jowar flour = jowari flour = juwar flour = cholam flour  Notes:    This is widely used in India and Africa, especially by poor farmers who can't afford wheat flour.  It's somewhat bland but very nutritious and gluten-free.  You can sometimes find it in health foods stores, but you can get it for less in an Indian market.  Substitutes:   rice flour OR potato flour

 

soy flour  Substitutes: soya flour (more finely ground, milder flavor) OR other nonwheat flour  To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under all-purpose flour.

soya flour = soya powder  Substitutes: soy flour (not as finely ground, stronger flavor) OR other nonwheat flour  To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under  all-purpose flour.

 

spelt flour  Notes:  Spelt flour contains gluten, but it's tolerated by many people with gluten allergies.  If making bread with spelt flour, don't knead it for as long as you would a wheat bread--its gluten isn't as durable as that in wheat.  Freeze any spelt flour that you're not planning to use right away.   Substitutes:  kamut flour (like spelt flour, kamut flour is tolerated by most people with wheat allergies and is good for making bread and pasta)

teff flour  To make your own:  Grind teff in a blender until it has the consistency of flour) Substitutes:  (for injera) equal parts wheat and rye flours (lacks distinctive flavor of teff flour)

triticale flour  Pronunciation:  trit-ih-KAY-lee   Substitutes: rye flour OR other nonwheat flour  To see how to substitute other flours for wheat flours when making yeast breads, see the listing under all-purpose flour.

urad dal flour  Notes:  This is made from urad dal, a type of Indian lentil.  The flour is used to make pappadums and breads.

 

white rice flour  See rice flour. 

 

 

yellow pea flour

 


Links

For more information on flour substitutes, visit the Functions of Baking Ingredients page.   If you're allergic to wheat flour, visit the Gluten-free cooking and baking hints page or the Basic Rice Recipes for Those with Allergies page. 

Copyright © 1996 - 2005  Lori Alden